LEADER 7: Cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

Guy E H M Rutten, Cees J. Tack, Thomas R. Pieber, Abdurrahman Comlekci, David Dynnes Ørsted, Florian M M Baeres, Steven P. Marso, John B. Buse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Aims: To determine whether US and European participants in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial differ regarding risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Methods: Baseline data, stratified for prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), were compared using multivariable logistic regression analysis to establish whether region is an independent determinant of achieved targets for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Results: Independent of CVD history, US participants were more often of non-White origin and had a longer history of type 2 diabetes, higher body weight, and higher baseline HbA1c. They had substantially lower systolic and diastolic BP, and a marginally lower LDL-cholesterol level. Fewer US participants were diagnosed with left ventricular dysfunction. In the largest group of patients, those with prior CVD and the highest cardiovascular risk, US participants were more often female, had a higher waist circumference, and had a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate, but less frequently prior myocardial infarction or angina pectoris. Conclusions: There were baseline differences between US and European participants. These differences may result from variation in regional targets for cardiovascular risk factor management, and should be considered in the analysis and reporting of the trial results. Clinical trial identifier: ClinicalTrials.gov,

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number37
JournalDiabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 2 2016


  • Cardiovascular outcome trial
  • External validity
  • Generalizability
  • Heterogeneity
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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