Landscape of drug-resistance mutations in kinase regulatory hotspots

Pora Kim, Hanyang Li, Junmei Wang, Zhongming Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


More than 48 kinase inhibitors (KIs) have been approved by Food and Drug Administration. However, drug-resistance (DR) eventually occurs, and secondary mutations have been found in the previously targeted primary-mutated cancer cells. Cancer and drug research communities recognize the importance of the kinase domain (KD) mutations for kinasopathies. So far, a systematic investigation of kinase mutations on DR hotspots has not been done yet. In this study, we systematically investigated four types of representative mutation hotspots (gatekeeper, G-loop, αC-helix and A-loop) associated with DR in 538 human protein kinases using large-scale cancer data sets (TCGA, ICGC, COSMIC and GDSC). Our results revealed 358 kinases harboring 3318 mutations that covered 702 drug resistance hotspot residues. Among them, 197 kinases had multiple genetic variants on each residue. We further computationally assessed and validated the epidermal growth factor receptor mutations on protein structure and drug-binding efficacy. This is the first study to provide a landscape view of DR-associated mutation hotspots in kinase's secondary structures, and its knowledge will help the development of effective next-generation KIs for better precision medicine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberbbaa108
JournalBriefings in Bioinformatics
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2021


  • A-loop
  • G-loop
  • gatekeeper
  • kinase inhibitor
  • mutation hotspot
  • αC-helix

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Molecular Biology


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