Lack of in-brace x-rays in compliant AIS patients wearing full-time TLSO braces associates with failure

Isabel Alvarez, Kiley Poppino, Lori Karol, Amy L. McIntosh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: In-brace correction and brace compliance with thoraco-lumbo-sacral orthotic (TLSO) braces are associated with successful treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This paper compares patients who had consistent radiographic documentation of in-brace correction to those who did not. Methods: All skeletally immature (Risser 0-2) patients were treated for AIS (25-45°) with full-time TLSO braces that had compliance temperature monitors. All patients wore their braces at least 12 h a day. Brace failure was defined as curve progression to a surgical magnitude (≥ 50°). All patients were followed until brace discontinuation. Results: Ninety patients (F 82, M 8) with an average age of 12.1 (10.1-15.0) years, Risser grade 0 (0-2), BMI percentile 48.5 (0.0-98.8), and daily brace wear of 16.5 (12.1-21.6) h/day were treated for 24.3 (8.0-66.6) months. Patients went through 1.7 (1-4) braces on average. Forty-two out of 90 (46.7%) patients had some amount of brace time with an unknown in-brace correction, which, on average, was 66.1% of their total treatment course (11.5-100). On univariate analysis, patients that did not have a repeat in-brace x-ray with major brace adjustments or new brace fabrication tended to be more skeletally immature (Risser 0 and tri-radiate open, p = 0.028), wear more braces throughout their treatment (2.0 vs 1.4, p < 0.001), were treated for a longer period of time (27 vs 22 months, p = 0.022), and failed bracing more often (47.6% vs 22.9%, p = 0.014). Conclusions: Patients who did not have new in-brace x-rays with major brace adjustments and/or new brace fabrication were 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-7.6) times more likely to fail bracing than patients who were re-checked with new in-brace x-rays. Trial registration:—NCT02412137, initial registration date April 2015 Level of evidence: III

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number540
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
  • In-brace correction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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