Label free, lateral flow prostaglandin E2 electrochemical immunosensor for urinary tract infection diagnosis

Antra Ganguly, Tahmineh Ebrahimzadeh, Philippe E. Zimmern, Nicole J. De Nisco, Shalini Prasad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


A label-free, rapid, and easy-to-use lateral flow electrochemical biosensor was developed for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis in resource challenged areas. The sensor operates in non-faradaic mode and utilizes Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for quantification of Prostaglandin E2, a diagnostic and prognostic urinary biomarker for UTI and recurrent UTI. To achieve high sensitivity in low microliter volumes of neat, unprocessed urine, nanoconfinement of assay biomolecules was achieved by developing a three-electrode planar gold microelectrode system on top of a lateral flow nanoporous membrane. The sensor is capable of giving readouts within 5 min and has a wide dynamic range of 100–4000 pg/mL for urinary PGE2. The sensor is capable of discriminating between low and high levels of PGE2 and hence is capable of threshold classification of urine samples as UTI positive and UTI negative. The sensor through its immunological response (directly related to host immune response) is superior to the commercially available point-of-care UTI dipsticks which are qualitative, have poor specificity for UTI, and have high false-positive rates. The developed sensor shows promise for rapid, easy and cost-effective UTI diagnosis for both clinical and home-based settings. More accurate point-of-care UTI diagnosis will improve patient outcomes and allow for timely and appropriate prescription of antibiotics which can subsequently increase treatment success rates and reduce costs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number271
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • Lateral flow electrochemical immunosensor
  • Non-faradaic immunosensing
  • Point-of-care UTI diagnosis
  • Prostaglandin E2
  • Self-monitoring UTI dipstick
  • Urinary tract infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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