L N S C3: A Proposed classification system for female urethral diverticula

G. E. Leach, L. T. Sirls, K. Ganabathi, P. E. Zimmern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


No descriptive criteria for the preoperative classification of female urethral diverticula have been proposed. Consequently, alternative therapies and different treatment series are not easily compared. Since 1982 the authors have evaluated 61 women with urethral diverticula and have identified those preoperative factors critical to an organized surgical approach to urethral diverticula. From this experience, a simple, comprehensive classification system for female urethral diverticula is proposed. The classification system is called L/N/S/C3. Each letter of the system represents a different characteristic of urethral diverticula. L = Location, the site of the diverticulum, i.e., distal, mid, or proximal urethra, with or without extension beneath the bladder neck. N = Number, whether single or multiple diverticula are present. S = Size, expressed in centimeters (cm). C3 = Configuration, Communication, and Continence Configuration (C1) describes whether the diverticulum is single, multiloculated, or saddle shaped. Communication (C2) indicates the site of communication with the urethral lumen, i.e., distal, mid, or proximal urethra. Continence (C3) is the presence of genuine stress urinary incontinence. Adhering to this format provides the surgeon a systematic means of approaching a urethral diverticulum and thus may minimize postoperative complications. Finally, the authors encourage other surgeons reporting series of urethral diverticula to adopt this system so that standard terminology may allow accurate comparison of surgical results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)523-531
Number of pages9
JournalNeurourology and urodynamics
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1993


  • bladder
  • classification system
  • urethra
  • urethral diverticulum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Urology


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