Aaron Jay Yang, Nitin B. Jain

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


A thorough examination of the knee should include the hip and ankle joints as knee pain can be secondary to pathology from the surrounding joints. The knee contains two joints: the tibiofemoral joint and patellofemoral joint. The knee joint relies on the surrounding ligaments for stability and it is important to test the ligaments during examination. While the most common diagnosis encountered in the outpatient setting may be patellofemoral pain syndrome, any acute knee injury associated with a “pop” that is felt followed by immediate swelling should be considered to be an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear until proven otherwise and require immediate medical attention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPain Medicine
Subtitle of host publicationAn Essential Review
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9783319431338
ISBN (Print)9783319431314
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Apley grind test
  • Bounce home test
  • Lachman test
  • McMurray test
  • Patellofemoral joint
  • Thessaly test
  • Tibiofemoral joint
  • Varus and vagus alignment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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