Kenneth Estrera, Mitch McDowell, Brett R. Levine

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Heterotopic ossification (HO) about the knee joint has been reported after knee dislocations, burn injuries, spinal cord injuries, and traumatic brain injuries. From a surgical standpoint, the occurrence of HO has more often been related to intramedullary nailing, high tibial osteotomy, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and most prominently total knee arthroplasty (TKA). While HO about the knee is relatively rare compared to its incidence in other joints, it can be quite debilitating. Diagnosis with plain films is often adequate. Classification schemes including those by Harwin, Rader, Furia and Pelligrini, and Mills and Tejwani are used to more qualitatively understand the degree of HO formation. This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, treatment and corresponding results, and prophylaxis of HO about the knee with a focus on HO in TKA surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHeterotopic Ossification
Subtitle of host publicationBasic Science, General Principles, and Clinical Correlates in Orthopedic Surgery
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781634829519
ISBN (Print)9781634828994
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • Furia
  • Harwin
  • Knee
  • Pelligrini
  • Rader
  • TKA
  • Total knee arthroplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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