Background: Cardiac surgery–associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We examined the utility of combining biomarkers of kidney function loss (serum cystatin C) and kidney tubular damage (urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 [KIM-1]) for the prediction of post–cardiac surgery AKI. Methods: Single-center prospective cohort study of 106 adults undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Primary outcome was postoperative in-hospital AKI defined by serum creatinine (SCr)–Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Biomarkers were measured preoperatively, 6 hours after CPB and on postoperative days (PODs) 1 to 4. Results: A total of 23 subjects (21.7%) developed AKI. After adjusting for preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction, body mass index >30 kg/m2, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, the combination of peak serum cystatin C and peak urine KIM-1/creatinine (Cr) (6 hours post-CPB to POD 1) above optimal cutoff significantly associated with postoperative AKI (odds ratio [OR]: 5.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31–21.67; P = 0.020). This biomarker combination significantly improved the performance of the clinical model for the prediction of postoperative AKI (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65–0.90 for the clinical model alone versus 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73–0.93 for the clinical model with the addition of biomarker data, P = 0.049). Conclusions: Combining biomarkers of postoperative kidney function loss and postoperative kidney tubular damage significantly improved prediction of in-hospital AKI following cardiac surgery. Future large, multicenter studies are warranted to assess whether panels of biomarkers reflecting distinct pathobiology can be used to guide interventions and improve short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1131-1142
Number of pages12
JournalKidney International Reports
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2019


  • acute kidney injury
  • biomarkers
  • critical care
  • major adverse kidney events
  • prediction
  • thoracic surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


Dive into the research topics of 'Kidney Tubular Damage and Functional Biomarkers in Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiac Surgery'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this