Ketamine-propofol combination (ketofol) vs propofol for procedural sedation and analgesia: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Mohammad Jalili, Maryam Bahreini, Amin Doosti-Irani, Rasoul Masoomi, Mona Arbab, Hadi Mirfazaelian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Objective This meta-analysis of trials was conducted to evaluate the analgesic and side effects of ketamine-propofol combination (ketofol) in comparison to propofol in procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). Methods Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, CINHAL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for clinical trial. The administration complications were the key outcomes of interest. Result Eighteen clinical trials that met our criteria were included in the analysis. Pooling of data showed that ketofol is significantly effective for reduction of respiratory complication and with relative risk (RR) of 0.31 in 14 trials (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-0.7; P =.001). Ketofol was also effective in reducing cardiovascular complications with hypotension RR of 0.11 in 9 trials (95% CI, 0.17-0.97; P =.04) and bradycardia RR of 0.47 in 8 trials (95% CI, 0.28-0.72; P =.008). The present study also showed that the summary of RR for psychomimetic complications was 1.95 in 13 trials were (95% CI, 0.79-4.81; P =.15) and for muscle rigidity was 0.52 for 2 trials (95% CI, 0.06-4.67; P =.56), and both were insignificant. In regard to nausea and vomiting, the RR was 1.23 in 12 trials (95% CI, 0.39-3.88; P =.72) and insignificant. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrates good safety profile in cardiorespiratory problems and comparable rate of other complications with propofol in adult procedural sedation and analgesia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)558-569
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Emergency Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine


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