Is it really myositis? Mimics and pitfalls

Salman F. Bhai, Mazen M. Dimachkie, Marianne de Visser

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous set of systemic inflammatory disorders primarily affecting muscle. Signs and symptoms vary greatly between and within subtypes, requiring supportive laboratory and pathologic evidence to confirm the diagnosis. Several studies are typical assessments for patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy, including muscle enzymes, autoimmune markers, imaging, and muscle biopsy. Misdiagnoses of myositis are not only related to the overlap of clinical phenotype with non-inflammatory myopathies, but also due to the limitations of diagnostic tests employed. Since many of the investigative tests are non-specific, they share features with other disorders, including muscular dystrophies, endocrine, toxic, and metabolic myopathies, and other neuromuscular or rheumatologic conditions. Recognizing the limitations of tests and understanding the shared features between inflammatory and non-inflammatory myopathies can help prevent misdiagnosing myositis with one of its several mimics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101764
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Dermatomyositis
  • Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy
  • Inclusion body myositis
  • Inflammatory myopathy
  • Myositis
  • Polymyositis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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