Intrinsic tryptophans of CRABPI as probes of structure and folding

Patricia L. Clark, Zhi Ping Liu, Jianhua Zhang, Lila M. Gierasch

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81 Scopus citations


The native state fluorescence and CD spectra of the predominantly β- sheet cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (CRABP1) include contributions from its three tryptophan residues and are influenced by the positions of these residues in the three-dimensional structure. Using a combination of spectroscopic approaches and single Trp-mutants of CRABP1, we have deconvoluted these spectra and uncovered several features that have aided in our analysis of the development of structure in the folding pathway of CRABP1. The emission spectrum of native CRABP1 is dominated by Trp 7. Trp 109 is fluorescence-silent due to its interaction with the guanidino group of Arg 111. Although the far-UV CD spectrum of CRABP1 is largely determined by the protein's secondary structure, aromatic clustering around Trp 87 and the aromatic charge interaction between Arg 111 and Trp 109 give rise to a characteristic feature in the CD spectrum at 228 nm. The near-UV CD bands of CRABP1 arise largely from additive contributions of the three tryptophan residues. Trp 7 and Trp 87 give a negative CD band at 275 nm. The near-UV CD band from Trp 109 is positive and shifted to longer wavelengths (to 302 nm) due to the charge-aromatic interaction between Arg 111 and Trp 109. Our deconvolution of the equilibrium spectra have been used to interpret kinetic folding experiments monitored by stopped-flow fluorescence. These dynamic experiments suggest the early evolution of a well-populated, hydrophobically collapsed intermediate, which undergoes global rearrangement to form the fully folded structure. The results presented here suggest several additional strategies for dissecting the folding pathway of CRABP1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1108-1117
Number of pages10
JournalProtein Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1996


  • aromatic-charge interaction
  • fluorescence
  • near- and far-UV CD
  • retinoic acid binding protein
  • tryptophan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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