International union of pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors

Pierre Germain, Pierre Chambon, Gregor Eichele, Ronald M. Evans, Mitchell A. Lazar, Mark Leid, Angel R. De Lera, Reuben Lotan, David J. Mangelsdorf, Hinrich Gronemeyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

413 Scopus citations


The physiological effects of retinoic acids (RAs) are mediated by members of two families of nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which are encoded by three distinct human genes, RXRα, RXRβ, and RXRγ. RARs bind both all-trans- and 9-cis-RA, whereas only the 9-cis-RA stereoisomer binds to RXRs. As RXR/RAR heterodimers, these receptors control the transcription of RA target genes through binding to RA-response elements. This review is focused on the structure, mode of action, ligands, expression, and pharmacology of RXRs. Given their role as common partners to many other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, these receptors have been the subject of intense scrutiny. Moreover, and despite numerous studies since their initial discovery, RXRs remain enigmatic nuclear receptors, and there is still no consensus regarding their role. Indeed, multiple questions about the actual biological role of RXRs and the existence of an endogenous ligand have still to be answered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)760-772
Number of pages13
JournalPharmacological reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology


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