International Alliance of Urolithiasis (IAU) guidelines on the metabolic evaluation and medical management of urolithiasis

Guohua Zeng, Wei Zhu, William G. Robertson, Kristina L. Penniston, Daron Smith, Agnieszka Pozdzik, Tzevat Tefik, Domenico Prezioso, Margaret S. Pearle, Ben H. Chew, Julian Veser, Cristian Fiori, Yaoliang Deng, Michael Straub, Christian Türk, Michelle J. Semins, Kunjie Wang, Martino Marangella, Zhankui Jia, Liyuan ZhangZhangqun Ye, Hans Göran Tiselius, Kemal Sarica

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to construct the fourth in a series of guidelines on the treatment of urolithiasis by the International Alliance of Urolithiasis (IAU) that by providing a clinical framework for the metabolic evaluation, prevention, and follow-up of patients with urolithiasis based on the best available published literature. All recommendations were summarized following a systematic review and assessment of the literature in the PubMed database from January 1976 to June 2022. Each generated recommendation was graded using a modified GRADE methodology. Guideline recommendations were developed that addressed the following topics: initial evaluation, metabolic testing, dietary measures, medical management, and follow-up of recurrent stone formers. It was emphasized by the Panel that prevention of new stone formation is as important as the surgical removal of the stones. Although general preventive measures may be effective in reducing stone recurrence rates in some patients, specific medical and dietary management should be well considered and eventually applied in an individualized manner based on the outcomes of metabolic work-up, stone analysis and some certain patient related factors. A detailed follow-up of each case is essential depending on the metabolic activity of each individual patient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Follow-up
  • IAU
  • Kidney stone
  • Metabolic evaluation
  • Prevention
  • Urolithiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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