Influenza, West Nile Virus, Varicella-Zoster, and Tuberculosis

Jeanne S. Sheffield

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Influenza infection, while clinically recognized for centuries, remains a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality from febrile respiratory illness. It is an orthomyxovirus with three antigenic types: A, B, and C. Vaccination is the primary method to prevent influenza and its severe complications. West Nile Virus is an anthropod-borne RNA flavivirus, a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic complex. The primary strategy for preventing exposure in pregnancy is the use of mosquito repellent containing N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a double-stranded DNA herpes virus acquired predominantly during childhood in the United States, 95% of adults have serologic evidence of immunity. Humans are the only source of infection with VZV. Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial infection caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted by respiratory droplet and spread from person to person via air. Untreated TB in pregnancy poses a significant threat to the mother and fetus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProtocols for High-Risk Pregnancies
Subtitle of host publicationAn Evidence-Based Approach: Sixth Edition
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9781119001256
ISBN (Print)9781119000877
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Influenza infection
  • Pregnancy
  • Respiratory illness
  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
  • West Nile Virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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