Influence of Socio-Demographic Factors in Patients With Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

Amanda M. Walker, Grace Lu, Shari C. Clifton, Motolani E. Ogunsanya, Benjamin F. Chong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is a chronic autoimmune skin disease with potential for systemic involvement, disfigurement, and significant disease burden. The relationships of demographics and socioeconomic status with patients with CLE are emerging topics with important clinical implications. The primary objective of our study is to perform a literature review of studies that have investigated demographic and socioeconomic factors amongst patients with CLE and determine whether these factors influence diagnosis frequency, disease severity and outcomes or health related quality of life. We searched multiple databases to identify literature addressing CLE and concepts such as race, ethnicity, gender, income, education level and geographic location. Information regarding primary research objective was extracted from all full text articles, and a summary of findings was prepared. We found that race and ethnicity can influence CLE diagnosis frequency and disease outcomes. Chronic cutaneous lupus (CCLE) occurs more frequently in Black patients, often with higher overall disease damage. Differences between genders exist in CLE in terms of health-related quality of life, as female gender was a risk factor for worse quality of life in several studies. Lower income, low educational attainment, and lack of health insurance all contribute to poorer overall outcomes in CLE patients. This review will help inform physicians about populations at risk for potentially worse outcomes to guide treatment decisions for patients with CLE and provide important information to design interventions that address modifiable social determinants of health in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number916134
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
StatePublished - Jul 11 2022


  • autoimmunity
  • cutaneous lupus
  • health equity
  • race
  • socio-demographic factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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