Induction regimen and survival in simultaneous heart-kidney transplant recipients

Venkatesh K. Ariyamuthu, Alpesh A. Amin, Mark H. Drazner, Faris Araj, Pradeep P.A. Mammen, Mehmet Ayvaci, Mutlu Mete, Fatih Ozay, Mythili Ghanta, Sumit Mohan, Prince Mohan, Bekir Tanriover

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: Induction therapy in simultaneous heart-kidney transplantation (SHKT) is not well studied in the setting of contemporary maintenance immunosuppression consisting of tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolic acid (MPA), and prednisone (PRED). Methods: We analyzed the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network registry from January 1, 2000, to March 3, 2015, for recipients of SHKT (N = 623) maintained on TAC/MPA/PRED at hospital discharge. The study cohort was further stratified into 3 groups by induction choice: induction (n = 232), rabbit anti-thymoglobulin (r-ATG; n = 204), and interleukin-2 receptor-α (n = 187) antagonists. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Multivariable inverse probability weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess hazard ratios associated with post-transplant mortality as the primary outcome. The study cohort was censored on March 4, 2016, to allow at least 1-year of follow-up. Results: During the study period, the number of SHKTs increased nearly 5-fold. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed superior outcomes with r-ATG compared with no induction or interleukin-2 receptor-α induction. Compared with the no-induction group, an inverse probability weighted Cox proportional hazard model showed no independent association of induction therapy with the primary outcome. In sub-group analysis, r-ATG appeared to lower mortality in sensitized patients with panel reactive antibody of 10% or higher (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.05–0.71). Conclusion: r-ATG may provide a survival benefit in SHKT, especially in sensitized patients maintained on TAC/MPA/PRED at hospital discharge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)587-595
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2018


  • induction therapy
  • mycophenolate
  • patient survival
  • propensity score
  • simultaneous heart-kidney transplantation
  • tacrolimus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Transplantation


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