Independent and court-ordered forensic neuropsychological examinations: Official statement of the National Academy of Neuropsychology

Shane S. Bush, Jeffrey T. Barth, Neil H. Pliskin, Sharon Arffa, Bradley N. Axelrod, Lynn B. Blackburn, David Faust, Jerid M. Fisher, J. Preston Harley, Robert L. Heilbronner, Glenn J. Larrabee, William Perry, Antonio E. Puente, Cheryl H. Silver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Independent forensic neuropsychological examinations are performed by neuropsychologists who are hired as independent contractors by third parties to make determinations regarding neuropsychological functioning. The responsibilities of neuropsychologists when performing independent or court-ordered forensic examinations differ from those of clinical examinations. Because neuropsychological training typically occurs in clinical contexts, the transition to forensic contexts may result in uncertainty about how to negotiate the unique responsibilities of the forensic examiner role. Neuropsychologists are responsible for maintaining the highest standards of professional practice when performing independent and court-ordered forensic examinations. To reach and maintain the highest standards of practice, neuropsychologists must understand the unique relationships with retaining parties and examinees and strive to maintain true independence and objectivity. Although a true neuropsychologist-patient relationship is not considered to exist within the context of a forensic neuropsychological evaluation, neuropsychologists have ethical responsibilities to both the retaining party and the examinee.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)997-1007
Number of pages11
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • Court-ordered
  • Examination
  • Forensic
  • Independent
  • Neuropsychological

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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