Incidence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Endocarditis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in the United States

Amgad Mentias, Saket Girotra, Milind Y. Desai, Phillip A. Horwitz, James D. Rossen, Marwan Saad, Sidakpal Panaich, Samir Kapadia, Mary Vaughan Sarrazin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the incidence and outcomes of endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Background: Data about endocarditis after TAVR are limited. Methods: The study investigated Medicare patients who underwent TAVR from 2012 to 2017 and identified patients admitted with endocarditis during follow-up using a validated algorithm. The main study outcome was all-cause mortality. Results: Of 134,717 patients who underwent TAVR, 1868 patients developed endocarditis during follow-up (incidence 0.87%/year), with majority of infections (65.0%) occurring within 1 year. Incidence of endocarditis declined in recent years. The most common organisms were Staphylococcus (22.0%), Streptococcus (20.0%), and Enterococcus (15.5%). Important predictors for endocarditis were younger age at TAVR, male sex, prior endocarditis, end-stage renal disease, repeat TAVR procedures, liver and lung disease, and post-TAVR acute kidney injury. Thirty-day and 1-year mortality were 18.5% and 45.6%, respectively. After adjusting for comorbidities and procedural complications, endocarditis after TAVR was associated with 3-fold higher risk of mortality (44.9 vs. 16.2 deaths per 100 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.77 to 3.12; p < 0.0001). End-stage renal disease (aHR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.72 to 2.60), endocarditis complicated by cardiogenic shock (aHR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.56 to 4.02), ischemic stroke (aHR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28), intracerebral hemorrhage (aHR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.76), acute kidney injury (aHR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.27 to 1.63), blood transfusion (aHR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.50), staphylococcal (aHR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.49 to 1.97), and fungal endocarditis (aHR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.23 to 2.39) (p < 0.05 for all) portended higher mortality following endocarditis. Conclusions: The incidence of endocarditis after TAVR is low and declining. However, it is associated with poor prognosis with one-half the patients dying within 1 year.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1973-1982
Number of pages10
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 14 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • infective endocarditis
  • prosthetic endocarditis
  • transcatheter aortic valve replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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