In-Hospital Initiation of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors for Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

Vishal N. Rao, Evan Murray, Javed Butler, Lauren B. Cooper, Zachary L. Cox, Mona Fiuzat, Jennifer B. Green, Jo Ann Lindenfeld, Darren K. McGuire, Michael E. Nassif, Cara O'Brien, Neha Pagidipati, Kavita Sharma, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Orly Vardeny, Gregg C. Fonarow, Robert J. Mentz, Stephen J. Greene

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor therapy is well suited for initiation during the heart failure hospitalization, owing to clinical benefits that accrue rapidly within days to weeks, a strong safety and tolerability profile, minimal to no effects on blood pressure, and no excess risk of adverse kidney events. There is no evidence to suggest that deferring initiation to the outpatient setting accomplishes anything beneficial. Instead, there is compelling evidence that deferring in-hospital initiation exposes patients to excess risk of early postdischarge clinical worsening and death. Lessons from other heart failure with reduced ejection fraction therapies highlight that deferring initiation of guideline-recommended medications to the U.S. outpatient setting carries a >75% chance they will not be initiated within the next year. Recognizing that 1 in 4 patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure die or are readmitted within 30 days, clinicians should embrace the in-hospital period as an optimal time to initiate sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor therapy and treat this population with the urgency it deserves.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2004-2012
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number20
StatePublished - Nov 16 2021


  • guideline-directed medical therapy
  • heart failure
  • in-hospital prescribing
  • medical therapy
  • sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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