Improving plastic surgery resident education and quality of care with outcomes feedback using the surgery report card: An initial experience

Sameer H. Halani, Min Jeong Cho, Maycie Garibay, Julia Nevin, Andrew Y. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: The practice of tracking and analyzing surgical outcomes is essential to becoming better surgeons. However, this feedback system is largely absent in residency training programs. Thus, we developed a Surgery Report Card (SRC) for residents performing tissue expander (TE)–based breast reconstruction and report our initial experience with its implementation. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis for TE-based breast reconstructions and compared outcomes to our retrospective cohort. The primary outcome was overall complications. The SRC compares patient and complication statistics for resident-led teams to the meta-analysis. Results: The meta-analysis included 12 studies, with 2093 patients (2982 breasts) that underwent TE-based reconstruction. The pooled complication rate was 26.9%; infection was most common (8.3%); failure rate was 5.9%. Our cohort included 144 patients (245 breasts) among 13 resident-led teams. Overall complication rate was 31.8%; infections were most frequent (17.6%) and failure rate was 7.3%. Our cohort had significantly higher BMIs (29.7 vs 25.4, p<0.0001) more diabetics (6.9% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.02), and more patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy (41.4 vs 26.3%, p<0.0001). Every 3 months, residents receive a customized SRC of their cases, with the meta-analysis used as a benchmark. A survey demonstrated the SRC made residents reconsider surgical technique and more conscientious surgeons, and would like it implemented for other procedures during residency. Conclusions: The implementation of our SRC for TE-based breast reconstruction establishes a baseline for surgical performance comparison for residents, demonstrates that residents can safely perform the procedure, and allows for critiquing of surgical techniques to improve patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1338-1347
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2020


  • Breast reconstruction
  • Resident education
  • Surgical report card
  • Tissue-expanders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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