Imaging features at the periphery: Hemodynamics, pathophysiology, and effect on LI-RADS categorization

Nikita Consul, Claude B. Sirlin, Victoria Chernyak, David T. Fetzer, William R. Masch, Sandeep S. Arora, Richard K.G. Do, Robert M. Marks, Kathryn J. Fowler, Amir A. Borhani, Khaled M. Elsayes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Liver lesions have different enhancement patterns at dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) applies the enhancement kinetic of liver observations in its algorithms for imaging-based diagnosis of hepatocel-lular carcinoma (HCC) in at-risk populations. Therefore, careful analysis of the spatial and temporal features of these enhancement patterns is necessary to increase the accuracy of liver mass char-acterization. The authors focus on enhancement patterns that are found at or around the margins of liver observations—many of which are recognized and defined by LI-RADS, such as target-oid appearance, rim arterial phase hyperenhancement, peripheral washout, peripheral discontinuous nodular enhancement, enhanc-ing capsule appearance, nonenhancing capsule appearance, corona enhancement, and periobservational arterioportal shunts—as well as peripheral and periobservational enhancement in the setting of posttreatment changes. Many of these are considered major or ancillary features of HCC, ancillary features of malignancy in general, features of non-HCC malignancy, features associated with benign entities, or features related to treatment response. Distinction between these different patterns of enhancement can help with achieving a more specific diagnosis of HCC and better assessment of response to local-regional therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1657-1675
Number of pages19
Issue number6
StatePublished - Oct 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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