Identification of Lps2 as a key transducer of MyD88-independent TIR signalling

K. Hoebe, X. Du, P. Georgel, E. Janssen, K. Tabeta, S. O. Kim, J. Goode, P. Lin, N. Mann, S. Mudd, K. Crozat, S. Sovath, J. Han, B. Beutler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

922 Scopus citations


In humans, ten Toll-like receptor (TLR) paralogues sense molecular components of microbes, initiating the production of cytokine mediators that create the inflammatory response. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, we induced a germline mutation called Lps2, which abolishes cytokine responses to double-stranded RNA and severely impairs responses to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), indicating that TLR3 and TLR4 might share a specific, proximal transducer. Here we identify the Lps2 mutation: a distal frameshift error in a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TIR) adaptor protein known as Trif or Ticam-1. TrifLps2 homozygotes are markedly resistant to the toxic effects of LPS, and are hypersusceptible to mouse cytomegalovirus, failing to produce type I interferons when infected. Compound homozygosity for mutations at Trif and MyD88 (a cytoplasmic TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein) loci ablates all responses to LPS, indicating that only two signalling pathways emanate from the LPS receptor. However, a Trif-independent cell population is detectable when TrifLps2 mutant macrophages are stimulated with LPS. This reveals that an alternative MyD88-dependent 'adaptor X' pathway is present in some, but not all, macrophages, and implies afferent immune specialization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)743-748
Number of pages6
Issue number6950
StatePublished - 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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