Hyperpolarized [1,4-13C]-diethylsuccinate: A potential DNP substrate for in vivo metabolic imaging

Kelvin L. Billingsley, Sonal Josan, Jae Mo Park, Sui Seng Tee, Eleanor Spielman-Sun, Ralph Hurd, Dirk Mayer, Daniel Spielman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle performs an essential role in the regulation of energy and metabolism, and deficiencies in this pathway are commonly correlated with various diseases. However, the development of non-invasive techniques for the assessment of the cycle in vivo has remained challenging. In this work, the applicability of a novel imaging agent, [1,4-13C]-diethylsuccinate, for hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging of the TCA cycle was explored. In vivo spectroscopic studies were conducted in conjunction with in vitro analyses to determine the metabolic fate of the imaging agent. Contrary to previous reports (Zacharias NM et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012; 134: 934-943), [13C]-labeled diethylsuccinate was primarily metabolized to succinate-derived products not originating from TCA cycle metabolism. These results illustrate potential issues of utilizing dialkyl ester analogs of TCA cycle intermediates as molecular probes for hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)356-362
Number of pages7
JournalNMR in biomedicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Dynamic nuclear polarization
  • Hyperpolarized carbon-13
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Tricarboxylic acid cycle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy


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