Hemodynamic Gain Index and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Donald Richards, Nicholas S. Hendren, Katherine Michelis, Thanat Chaikijurajai, James P. MacNamara, Satyam Sarma, Maryjane A. Farr, Mark H Drazner, W. H.Wilson Tang, Justin L. Grodin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Decreased exercise capacity portends a poor prognosis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The hemodynamic gain index (HGI) is an integrated marker of hemodynamic reserve measured during exercise stress testing and is associated with survival. The goal of this study was to establish the association of HGI with exercise capacity, serum biomarkers, and echocardiography features in subjects with HFpEF. In 209 subjects with HFpEF enrolled in the RELAX (Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart Failure) trial who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, we calculated the HGI ([peak heart rate [HR] × peak systolic blood pressure [SBP]–[HR at rest × SBP at rest])/(HR at rest × SBP at rest) and tested associations with outcomes of interest. The median (interquartile range) HGI was 0.94 (0.5 to 1.3) beats per min/mm Hg. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression, higher HGI was associated with greater peak oxygen consumption (VO2), VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peak minute ventilation, and 6-minute walk distance (all p <0.001). Higher HGI was associated with lower serum high-sensitivity troponin I, pro-collagen III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and creatinine (all p <0.05) and with longer deceleration time, lower E/A ratio, and lower left atrial volume index by echocardiography (all p <0.05). In conclusion, higher HGI in stable HFpEF was associated with greater exercise capacity, a biomarker profile indicating less myocardial injury and fibrosis and less kidney dysfunction, and with less severe diastolic dysfunction. These results suggest that HGI, an easily calculated metric from routine exercise testing, is a marker of functional capacity and disease severity in HFpEF and may serve as a surrogate for VO2 parameters for use in treadmill testing without gas exchange capability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-24
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
StatePublished - Mar 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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