Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome (Glut1DS): State of the art in 2020 and recommendations of the international Glut1DS study group

Joerg Klepper, Cigdem Akman, Marisa Armeno, Stéphane Auvin, Mackenzie Cervenka, Helen J. Cross, Valentina De Giorgis, Adela Della Marina, Kristin Engelstad, Nicole Heussinger, Eric H. Kossoff, Wilhelmina G. Leen, Baerbel Leiendecker, Umrao R. Monani, Hirokazu Oguni, Elizabeth Neal, Juan M. Pascual, Toni S. Pearson, Roser Pons, Ingrid E. SchefferPierangelo Veggiotti, Michél Willemsen, Sameer M. Zuberi, Darryl C. De Vivo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

125 Scopus citations


Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1DS) is a brain energy failure syndrome caused by impaired glucose transport across brain tissue barriers. Glucose diffusion across tissue barriers is facilitated by a family of proteins including glucose transporter type 1 (Glut1). Patients are treated effectively with ketogenic diet therapies (KDT) that provide a supplemental fuel, namely ketone bodies, for brain energy metabolism. The increasing complexity of Glut1DS, since its original description in 1991, now demands an international consensus statement regarding diagnosis and treatment. International experts (n = 23) developed a consensus statement utilizing their collective professional experience, responses to a standardized questionnaire, and serial discussions of wide-ranging issues related to Glut1DS. Key clinical features signaling the onset of Glut1DS are eye-head movement abnormalities, seizures, neurodevelopmental impairment, deceleration of head growth, and movement disorders. Diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of these clinical signs, hypoglycorrhachia documented by lumbar puncture, and genetic analysis showing pathogenic SLC2A1 variants. KDT represent standard choices with Glut1DS-specific recommendations regarding duration, composition, and management. Ongoing research has identified future interventions to restore Glut1 protein content and function. Clinical manifestations are influenced by patient age, genetic complexity, and novel therapeutic interventions. All clinical phenotypes will benefit from a better understanding of Glut1DS natural history throughout the life cycle and from improved guidelines facilitating early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Often, the presenting seizures are treated initially with antiseizure drugs before the cause of the epilepsy is ascertained and appropriate KDT are initiated. Initial drug treatment fails to treat the underlying metabolic disturbance during early brain development, contributing to the long-term disease burden. Impaired development of the brain microvasculature is one such complication of delayed Glut1DS treatment in the postnatal period. This international consensus statement should facilitate prompt diagnosis and guide best standard of care for Glut1DS throughout the life cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)354-365
Number of pages12
JournalEpilepsia Open
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020


  • Glut1
  • Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome
  • Glut1D
  • Glut1DS
  • children
  • consensus
  • diet
  • epilepsy
  • glucose transport
  • guideline
  • ketogenic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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