Gain of allelic gene expression for IGF-II occurs frequently in Barrett's esophagus

Linda A. Feagins, Nathan Susnow, Ying Zhang Hui, Stephanie Pearson, Charles Owen, William F. Schmalstieg, Lance S. Terada, Stuart J. Spechler, Ruben D. Ramirez, Rhonda F. Souza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The IGF-II gene normally exhibits genomic imprinting, a DNA modification that allows the expression of only one of the two inherited alleles. With loss of imprinting, there is a gain of allelic gene expression (GOAGE) due to IGF-II being expressed by both alleles. GOAGE for IGF-II has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies and in normal epithelia surrounding malignancies, but not in epithelia without associated neoplasia. We hypothesized that nonneoplastic Barrett's epithelium might have GOAGE for IGF-II that could facilitate its progression to neoplasia. Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from metaplastic esophageal, normal gastric, and normal duodenal epithelia from 43 patients with Barrett's esophagus. Genomic DNA were analyzed using PCR followed by ApaI restriction enzyme digestion or allele-specific PCR to identify an ApaI polymorphism of IGF-II. cDNA from patients with the ApaI polymorphism were analyzed for IGF-II GOAGE using exon connection PCR, followed by a secondary nested PCR and ApaI restriction enzyme digestion. We found that 13 (30%) of 43 samples of Barrett's metaplasia contained the ApaI polymorphism and were thus informative for IGF-II, and sufficient material was available for GOAGE analysis in 9 of those 13 cases. GOAGE for IGF-II was demonstrated in five (56%) of those nine cases. All patients with GOAGE in Barrett's metaplasia also demonstrated GOAGE in the gastric and duodenal epithelia. In contrast, patients without GOAGE in Barrett's metaplasia also had no GOAGE in their gastric and duodenal epithelia. We conclude that in patients with Barrett's esophagus, GOAGE for IGF-II is found frequently in the metaplastic esophageal epithelium as well as in normal gastric and duodenal epithelia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)G871-G875
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2006


  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Metaplasia
  • Polymerase chain reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Physiology (medical)


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