Four-dimensional multiphoton confocal microscopy: The new frontier in cellular imaging

James V. Jester, Brant R. Ward, Akira Takashima, Joel Gatlin, J. Victor Garcia, Harrison D Cavanagh, Walter M Petroll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This paper reviews new developments in microscopy that combine gene transfer technology, multiphoton confocal fluorescence microscopy, live cell imaging and digital imaging techniques that provide unique insights into the complex physiological processes involved in tissue function at the cellular and subcellular level. The evolution of this novel, new technology is discussed with particular attention to earlier achievements in noninvasive ocular surface imaging. The practical basis of confocal microscopy, multiphoton confocal fluorescence microscopy, and the vital fluorescent labeling of cells in living tissues are also discussed. Additionally, one application using retroviral gene transfer to express enhanced green fluorescent protein in living wound healing fibroblasts is presented as an example of how living biology can be studied in situ in four dimensions (x, y, z, time).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10-20
Number of pages11
JournalOcular Surface
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004


  • Confocal microscopy
  • Cornea
  • Gene transfer
  • Keratocyte

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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