Feature visualization and classification for the discrimination between individuals with Parkinson's disease under levodopa and DBS treatments

Alessandro R.P. Machado, Hudson Capanema Zaidan, Ana Paula Souza Paix�o, Guilherme Lopes Cavalheiro, F�bio Henrique Monteiro Oliveira, Jo�o Areis Ferreira Barbosa J�nior, Kheline Naves, Adriano Alves Pereira, Janser Moura Pereira, Nader Pouratian, Xiaoyi Zhuo, Andrew O'Keeffe, Justin Sharim, Yvette Bordelon, Laurice Yang, Marcus Fraga Vieira, Adriano O. Andrade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background: Over the years, a number of distinct treatments have been adopted for the management of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), including pharmacologic therapies and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Efficacy is most often evaluated by subjective assessments, which are prone to error and dependent on the experience of the examiner. Our goal was to identify an objective means of assessing response to therapy. Methods: In this study, we employed objective analyses in order to visualize and identify differences between three groups: healthy control (N=10), subjects with PD treated with DBS (N=12), and subjects with PD treated with levodopa (N=16). Subjects were assessed during execution of three dynamic tasks (finger taps, finger to nose, supination and pronation) and a static task (extended arm with no active movement). Measurements were acquired with two pairs of inertial and electromyographic sensors. Feature extraction was applied to estimate the relevant information from the data after which the high-dimensional feature space was reduced to a two-dimensional space using the nonlinear Sammon's map. Non-parametric analysis of variance was employed for the verification of relevant statistical differences among the groups (p<0.05). In addition, K-fold cross-validation for discriminant analysis based on Gaussian Finite Mixture Modeling was employed for data classification. Results: The results showed visual and statistical differences for all groups and conditions (i.e., static and dynamic tasks). The employed methods were successful for the discrimination of the groups. Classification accuracy was 81�6% (mean�standard deviation) and 71�8%, for training and test groups respectively. Conclusions: This research showed the discrimination between healthy and diseased groups conditions. The methods were also able to discriminate individuals with PD treated with DBS and levodopa. These methods enable objective characterization and visualization of features extracted from inertial and electromyographic sensors for different groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number169
JournalBioMedical Engineering Online
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 30 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Discriminant analysis
  • Electromyography
  • Inertial sensors
  • Levodopa
  • Parkinson's disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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