Exercise Thermoregulation with a Simulated Burn Injury: Impact of Air Temperature

Matthew N. Cramer, Gilbert Moralez, M. U. Huang, K. E.N. Kouda, Paula Y.S. Poh, Craig G. Crandall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The U.S. Army's Standards of Medical Fitness (AR 40-501) states: "Prior burn injury (to include donor sites) involving a total body surface area of 40% or more does not meet the standard." However, the standard does not account for the interactive effect of burn injury size and air temperature on exercise thermoregulation. Purpose To evaluate whether the detrimental effect of a simulated burn injury on exercise thermoregulation is dependent on air temperature. Methods On eight occasions, nine males cycled for 60 min at a fixed metabolic heat production (6 W·kg-1) in air temperatures of 40°C or 25°C with simulated burn injuries of 0% (Control), 20%, 40%, or 60% of total body surface area (TBSA). Burn injuries were simulated by covering the skin with an absorbent, vapor-impermeable material to impede evaporation from the covered areas. Core temperature was measured in the gastrointestinal tract via telemetric pill. Results In 40°C conditions, greater elevations in core temperature were observed with 40% and 60% TBSA simulated burn injuries versus Control (P < 0.01). However, at 25°C, core temperature responses were not different versus Control with 20%, 40%, and 60% TBSA simulated injuries (P = 0.97). The elevation in core temperature at the end of exercise was greater in the 40°C environment with 20%, 40%, and 60% TBSA simulated burn injuries (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions Simulated burn injuries ≥20% TBSA exacerbate core temperature responses in hot, but not temperate, air temperatures. These findings suggest that the U.S. Army's standard for inclusion of burned soldiers is appropriate for hot conditions, but could lead to the needless discharge of soldiers who could safely perform their duties in cooler training/operational settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)712-719
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and science in sports and exercise
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020


  • Burn Survivor
  • Core Temperature
  • Evaporative Heat Loss
  • Heat Stress
  • Sweat Rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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