Evidence justifying a high fluid intake in treatment of nephrolithiasis

C. Y C Pak, K. Sakhaee, C. Crowther, L. Brinkley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

164 Scopus citations


We quantitatively assessed the effect of urinary dilution on the crystallization of calcium salts. Urinary dilution was achieved in vitro (1 to 2 L/d) by addition of water to urine from six patients with renal stones and two normal subjects, and in vivo (1.023 to 2.383 L/d) by an increased ingestion of distilled water in four patients with nephrolithiasis and three normal subjects. Both forms of urinary dilution significantly reduced the urinary activity product ratio (state of saturation) of calcium phosphate (brushite), calcium oxalate, and monosodium urate. Moreover, the formation product ratio (limit of metastability or minimum supersaturation needed to elicit spontaneous nucleation) of calcium oxalate significantly increased, although that for brushite did not change significantly. Thus, there was a reduced propensity for crystallization of calcium salts. The results provide objective evidence for the beneficial role of an increased fluid intake in the management of nephrolithiasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-39
Number of pages4
JournalAnnals of internal medicine
Issue number1 I
StatePublished - Jan 1 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Evidence justifying a high fluid intake in treatment of nephrolithiasis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this