Estimation of the delivered patient dose in lung IMRT treatment based on deformable registration of 4D-CT data and Monte Carlo simulations

Stella Flampouri, Steve B. Jiang, Greg C. Sharp, John Wolfgang, Abhijit A. Patel, Noah C. Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study is to accurately estimate the difference between the planned and the delivered dose due to respiratory motion and free breathing helical CT artefacts for lung IMRT treatments, and to estimate the impact of this difference on clinical outcome. Six patients with representative tumour motion, size and position were selected for this retrospective study. For each patient, we had acquired both a free breathing helical CT and a ten-phase 4D-CT scan. A commercial treatment planning system was used to create four IMRT plans for each patient. The first two plans were based on the GTV as contoured on the free breathing helical CT set, with a GTV to PTV expansion of 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm, respectively. The third plan was based on the ITV, a composite volume formed by the union of the CTV volumes contoured on free breathing helical CT, end-of-inhale (EOI) and end-of-exhale (EOE) 4D-CT. The fourth plan was based on GTV contoured on the EOE 4D-CT. The prescribed dose was 60 Gy for all four plans. Fluence maps and beam setup parameters of the IMRT plans were used by the Monte Carlo dose calculation engine MCSIM for absolute dose calculation on both the free breathing CT and 4D-CT data. CT deformable registration between the breathing phases was performed to estimate the motion trajectory for both the tumour and healthy tissue. Then, a composite dose distribution over the whole breathing cycle was calculated as a final estimate of the delivered dose. EUD values were computed on the basis of the composite dose for all four plans. For the patient with the largest motion effect, the difference in the EUD of CTV between the planed and the delivered doses was 33, 11, 1 and 0 Gy for the first, second, third and fourth plan, respectively. The number of breathing phases required for accurate dose prediction was also investigated. With the advent of 4D-CT, deformable registration and Monte Carlo simulations, it is feasible to perform an accurate calculation of the delivered dose, and compare our delivered dose with doses estimated using prior techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number006
Pages (from-to)2763-2779
Number of pages17
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 7 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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