ER exit sites are physical and functional core autophagosome biogenesis components

Martin Graef, Jonathan R. Friedman, Christopher Graham, Mohan Babu, Jodi Nunnari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

271 Scopus citations


Autophagy is a central homeostasis and stress response pathway conserved in all eukaryotes. One hallmark of autophagy is the de novo formation of autophagosomes. These double-membrane vesicular structures form around and deliver cargo for degradation by the vacuole/lysosome. Where and how autophagosomes form are outstanding questions. Here we show, using proteomic, cytological, and functional analyses, that autophagosomes are spatially, physically, and functionally linked to endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES), which are specialized regions of the endoplasmic reticulum where COPII transport vesicles are generated. Our data demonstrate that ERES are core autophagosomal biogenesis components whose function is required for the hierarchical assembly of the autophagy machinery immediately downstream of the Atg1 kinase complex at phagophore assembly sites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2918-2931
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular biology of the cell
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 15 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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