Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Thomas Tielleman, Daniel Bujanda, Byron Cryer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


Although the incidence of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) has been decreasing worldwide, nonvariceal UGIB continues to be a significant problem. Even with the advent of advanced endoscopic procedures and potent medications to suppress acid production, UGIB carries significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most common risk factors for nonvariceal UGIB include Helicobacter pylori infection, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and other antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. In patients with cardiovascular disease and kidney disease, UGIB tends to be more severe and has greater morbidity. Many of the newer NSAIDs have been removed from the market.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)415-428
Number of pages14
JournalGastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • Aspirin
  • Clopidogrel
  • Epidemiology
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Incidence
  • Mortality
  • NSAIDs
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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