Dosimetric effect of intrafraction tumor motion in phase gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy

Bo Zhao, Yong Yang, Tianfang Li, Xiang Li, Dwight E. Heron, M. Saiful Huq

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Purpose: A major concern for lung intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery is the deviation of actually delivered dose distribution from the planned one due to simultaneous movements of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves and tumor. For gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment (SBRT), the situation becomes even more complicated because of SBRTs characteristics such as fewer fractions, smaller target volume, higher dose rate, and extended fractional treatment time. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dosimetric effect of intrafraction tumor motion during gated lung SBRT delivery by reconstructing the delivered dose distribution with real-time tumor motion considered. Methods: The tumor motion data were retrieved from six lung patients. Each of them received three fractions of stereotactic radiotherapy treatments with Cyberknife Synchrony (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA). Phase gating through an external surrogate was simulated with a gating window of 5 mm. The resulting residual tumor motion curves during gating (beam-on) were retrieved. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as physician-contoured clinical target volume (CTV) surrounded by an isotropic 5 mm margin. Each patient was prescribed with 60 Gy3 fractions. The authors developed an algorithm to reconstruct the delivered dose with tumor motion. The DMLC segments, mainly leaf position and segment weighting factor, were recalculated according to the probability density function of tumor motion curve. The new DMLC sequence file was imported back to treatment planning system to reconstruct the dose distribution. Results: Half of the patients in the study group experienced PTV D95 deviation up to 26 for fractional dose and 14 for total dose. CTV mean dose dropped by 1 with tumor motion. Although CTV is almost covered by prescribed dose with 5 mm margin, qualitative comparison on the dose distributions reveals that CTV is on the verge of underdose. The discrepancy happens due to tumor excursion outside of the gating window, which, for our study group, is mainly caused by baseline shift, i.e., the change in general trend of the motion curve during extended period of treatment time. Conclusions: The dose deviation in PTV and CTV due to target motion is not always negligible in gated SBRT. Although CTVs are covered sufficiently with prescribed dose in most cases, some are on the verge of underdose due to large tumor excursion caused by factors such as baseline shift.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6629-6637
Number of pages9
JournalMedical physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2012


  • DMLC
  • SBRT
  • gated treatment
  • interplay
  • tumor motion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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