Direct maxacalcitol injection into hyperplastic parathyroids improves skeletal changes in secondary hyperparathyroidism

K. Shiizaki, I. Hatamura, S. Negi, T. Sakaguchi, F. Saji, K. Kunimoto, M. Okamoto, I. Imazeki, Y. Muragaki, T. Akizawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Direct maxacalcitol (OCT) injection into a parathyroid gland (PTG) ameliorates several important etiologic factors of resistance to medical treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism (s-HPT): the upregulations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR) in PTGs and the regression of PTG hyperplasia by the induction of apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated the bone histomorphology on the basis of maintaining these effects in advanced s-HPT. Five/six nephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-phosphorus and low-calcium diet for 8 weeks. These rats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) basic uremic (at the baseline), (2) direct OCT single injection into PTGs (DI-OCT) followed by OCT intravenous administration for 4 weeks (IV-OCT), (3) direct vehicle injection and IV-OCT, and (4) no treatment for an additional 4 weeks. The effects of these treatments on serum intact-parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, PTG weight, VDR and CaSR expression levels in PTGs, and bone histomorphometric parameters were investigated. In the DI-OCT+IV-OCT group, the significant decrease in serum intact-PTH level was maintained by the following IV-OCT. A significant decrease in PTG weight and the upregulations of VDR and CaSR expression levels in PTGs were also observed. Bone histomorphometric analysis showed significant improvements in osteitis fibrosa in both cancellous and cortical bones. However, these findings were not observed in the other groups. These results suggest that osteitis fibrosa caused by advanced s-HPT can be successfully reversed by a control of PTH at an appropriate level through the improvement of PTG hyperplasia as induced by DI-OCT+IV-OCT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)486-495
Number of pages10
JournalKidney international
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 21 2006


  • End-stage renal disease
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Mineral metabolism
  • Renal osteodystrophy
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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