Detection of Carotid Artery Stenosis with Intraplaque Hemorrhage and Neovascularization Using a Scanning Interferometer

Raiyan Tripti Zaman, Hisanori Kosuge, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, Lei Xing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is a major cause of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke) in the United States. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA), a surgical procedure, is used to treat CAS. According to the American Heart Association, 1 out of 5 patients underwent CEA inappropriately, which was most commonly due to apparent overestimation of stenosis severity, and half had uncertain indicators. The current imaging modalities are limited in providing critical information on carotid arterial plaque content, extent, and biology. To circumvent these limitations, we developed a sensing interferometer (SI) imaging system to assess vulnerable carotid plaques noninvasively to detect stenosis, neovascularization, and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH). We have custom-built a SI prototype and its peripheral systems with back-mode-projection capability. We detected stenosis, neo-vessels, and IPH through SI imaging system in in vivo mice carotid atherosclerotic plaques and further verified the same plaques ex vivo through a histology scope, CRi Maestro, and histological analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5714-5721
Number of pages8
JournalNano Letters
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 14 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • back-mode-projection
  • carotid arterial stenosis
  • intraplaque hemorrhage
  • neovascularization
  • scanning interferometer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


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