Objective To determine the prevalence and associated features of demoralization in Parkinson disease (PD). Methods Participants with PD and controls were prospectively recruited from outpatient movement disorder clinics and the community. Demoralization was defined as scoring positively on the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research, Demoralization questionnaire or Kissane Demoralization Scale score ≥24. Depression was defined as Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the odds of having demoralization in the overall, control, and PD cohorts. Results Demoralization occurred in 18.1% of 94 participants with PD and 8.1% of 86 control participants (p = 0.05). These 2 groups were otherwise comparable in age, sex, education, economics, race, and marital status. Although demoralization was highly associated with depression, there were individuals with one and not the other. Among participants with PD, 7 of 19 (36.8%) depressed individuals were not demoralized, and 5 of 17 (29.4%) demoralized individuals were not depressed. In the overall cohort, having PD (odds ratio 2.60, 95% confidence interval 1.00-6.80, p = 0.051) was associated with demoralization, along with younger age and not currently being married. In the PD cohort, younger age and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III score (per score 1) were associated with demoralization (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.12, p = 0.02). Conclusions Demoralization is common in PD and is associated with motor dysfunction. In demoralization, there is a prominent inability to cope, making it somewhat distinct from depression. Treatment approaches are also different, making it important to identify demoralization in patients with PD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology