Demonstrating Tumor Vascular Disrupting Activity of the Small-Molecule Dihydronaphthalene Tubulin-Binding Agent OXi6196 as a Potential Therapeutic for Cancer Treatment

Li Liu, Regan Schuetze, Jeni L. Gerberich, Ramona Lopez, Samuel O. Odutola, Rajendra P. Tanpure, Amanda K. Charlton-Sevcik, Justin K. Tidmore, Emily A.S. Taylor, Payal Kapur, Hans Hammers, Mary Lynn Trawick, Kevin G. Pinney, Ralph P. Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The vascular disrupting activity of a promising tubulin-binding agent (OXi6196) was demonstrated in mice in MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor xenografts growing orthotopically in mammary fat pad and syngeneic RENCA kidney tumors growing orthotopically in the kidney. To enhance water solubility, OXi6196, was derivatized as its corresponding phosphate prodrug salt OXi6197, facilitating effective delivery. OXi6197 is stable in water, but rapidly releases OXi6196 in the presence of alkaline phosphatase. At low nanomolar concentrations OXi6196 caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and monolayers of rapidly growing HUVECs underwent concentration-dependent changes in their morphology. Loss of the microtubule structure and increased bundling of filamentous actin into stress fibers followed by cell collapse, rounding and blebbing was observed. OXi6196 (100 nM) disrupted capillary-like endothelial networks pre-established with HUVECs on Matrigel®. When prodrug OXi6197 was administered to mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231-luc tumors, dynamic bioluminescence imaging (BLI) revealed dose-dependent vascular shutdown with >80% signal loss within 2 h at doses ≥30 mg/kg and >90% shutdown after 6 h for doses ≥35 mg/kg, which remained depressed by at least 70% after 24 h. Twice weekly treatment with prodrug OXi6197 (20 mg/kg) caused a significant tumor growth delay, but no overall survival benefit. Similar efficacy was observed for the first time in orthotopic RENCA-luc tumors, which showed massive hemorrhage and necrosis after 24 h. Twice weekly dosing with prodrug OXi6197 (35 mg/kg) caused tumor growth delay in most orthotopic RENCA tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed extensive necrosis, though with surviving peripheral tissues. These results demonstrate effective vascular disruption at doses comparable to the most effective vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) suggesting opportunities for further development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4208
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • bioluminescence imaging (BLI)
  • breast tumors
  • combretastatin
  • dihydronaphthalene
  • kidney tumors
  • lung tumors
  • vascular-disrupting agent (VDA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


Dive into the research topics of 'Demonstrating Tumor Vascular Disrupting Activity of the Small-Molecule Dihydronaphthalene Tubulin-Binding Agent OXi6196 as a Potential Therapeutic for Cancer Treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this