Delay to formalin fixation effect on breast biomarkers

Thaer Khoury, Sheila Sait, Helena Hwang, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Gregory Wilding, Dongfeng Tan, Swati Kulkarni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

187 Scopus citations


Delay to formalin fixation may invalidate hormone receptors and HER2 analyses. Invalid results of tumor markers could significantly alter the type of adjuvant therapy a patient receives and potentially impact outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of progressive delay to formalin fixation on breast cancer biomarkers. Ten palpable invasive breast cancers were resected and underwent immediate gross evaluation. For each case, the procured tumor was divided into eight parts and consecutively fixed after 0, 10, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h; one section was kept in saline and stored overnight at 4°C. Two tissue microarray blocks were constructed. Estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization were carried out. Statistical analyses including non-parametric sign test, exact McNemar's test and Page's L test were used. All 10 cases were invasive ductal carcinomas. Q score 6 was identified in five cases for estrogen receptor and four for progesterone receptor. Mean Q score started to decline at the 2 h mark for estrogen receptor and 1 h mark for progesterone receptor. Lowest score was at 8 h mark for estrogen receptor and overnight for progesterone receptor. HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization started to be compromised for interpretation at the 1 h mark and became statistically significant at the 2 h mark (P0.03). To avoid delay to formalin fixation as a factor negatively affecting on breast biomarkers, we recommend not to delay formalin fixation for more than 1 h and not to store specimens overnight.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1457-1467
Number of pages11
JournalModern Pathology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • Biomarkers
  • Breast cancer
  • Delay to formalin fixation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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