Deep-learning and radiomics ensemble classifier for false positive reduction in brain metastases segmentation

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7 Scopus citations


Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is now the standard of care for brain metastases (BMs) patients. The SRS treatment planning process requires precise target delineation, which in clinical workflow for patients with multiple (>4) BMs (mBMs) could become a pronounced time bottleneck. Our group has developed an automated BMs segmentation platform to assist in this process. The accuracy of the auto-segmentation, however, is influenced by the presence of false-positive segmentations, mainly caused by the injected contrast during MRI acquisition. To address this problem and further improve the segmentation performance, a deep-learning and radiomics ensemble classifier was developed to reduce the false-positive rate in segmentations. The proposed model consists of a Siamese network and a radiomic-based support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The 2D-based Siamese network contains a pair of parallel feature extractors with shared weights followed by a single classifier. This architecture is designed to identify the inter-class difference. On the other hand, the SVM model takes the radiomic features extracted from 3D segmentation volumes as the input for twofold classification, either a false-positive segmentation or a true BM. Lastly, the outputs from both models create an ensemble to generate the final label. The performance of the proposed model in the segmented mBMs testing dataset reached the accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE) and area under the curve of 0.91, 0.96, 0.90 and 0.93, respectively. After integrating the proposed model into the original segmentation platform, the average segmentation false negative rate (FNR) and the false positive over the union (FPoU) were 0.13 and 0.09, respectively, which preserved the initial FNR (0.07) and significantly improved the FPoU (0.55). The proposed method effectively reduced the false-positive rate in the BMs raw segmentations indicating that the integration of the proposed ensemble classifier into the BMs segmentation platform provides a beneficial tool for mBMs SRS management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number025004
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 21 2022


  • brain metastases
  • classification
  • stereotactic radiosurgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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