Decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta levels and related physiological changes in Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-treated macrophages

Amy E. Tucker, Isabelle I. Salles, Daniel E. Voth, William Ortiz-Leduc, Han Wang, Igor Dozmorov, Michael Centola, Jimmy D. Ballard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The lethal factor (LF) component of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LeTx) cleaves mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in a variety of different cell types, yet only macrophages are rapidly killed by this toxin. The reason for this selective killing is unclear, but suggests other factors may also be involved in LeTx intoxication. In the current study, DNA membrane arrays were used to identify broad changes in macrophage physiology after treatment with LeTx. Expression of genes regulated by MAPKK activity did not change significantly, yet a series of genes under glycogen synthase kinase-3-β (GSK-3β) regulation changed expression following LeTx treatment. Correlating with these transcriptional changes GSK-3β was found to be below detectable levels in toxin-treated cells and an inhibitor of GSK-3β, LiCl, sensitized resistant IC-21 macrophages to LeTx. In addition, zebrafish embryos treated with LeTx showed signs of delayed pigmentation and cardiac hypertrophy; both processes are subject to regulation by GSK-3β. A putative compensatory response to loss of GSK-3β was indicated by differential expression of three motor proteins following toxin treatment and Kif1C, a motor protein involved in sensitivity to LeTx, increased expression in toxin-sensitive cells yet decreased in resistant cells following toxin treatment. Differential expression of microtubule-associating proteins and a decrease in the level of cellular tubulin were detected in LeTx-treated cells, both of which can result from loss of GSK-3β activity. These data provide new information on LeTx's overall influence on macrophage physiology and suggest loss of GSK-3β contributes to cytotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)523-532
Number of pages10
JournalCellular Microbiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Virology


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