Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent used to treat a variety of cancers, including leukemia. Here, we show a previously unrecognized role of cyclophosphamide in triggering the protein degradation of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), a phospholipid hydroperoxidase that protects cells from oxidative damage. Mechanistically, we found that the ubiquitin-proteasome system, but not autophagy, mediates cyclophosphamide-induced degradation of GPX4 in human leukemia cell lines. Surprisingly, cyclophosphamide-induced degradation of GPX4 leads to caspase-independent parthanatos, but not lipid peroxidation-mediated ferroptosis, through the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondria-associated 1 (AIFM1). Consequently, the overexpression of GPX4 or the knockdown of AIFM1 limits the anticancer activity of cyclophosphamide in vitro and in xenograft tumor models. These findings establish a new framework for understanding the central role of GPX4 in blocking oxidative cell death.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications|
|State||Published - May 28 2022|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology