Creating the Feedback Loop. Closed-Loop Neurostimulation.

Adam O. Hebb, Jun Jason Zhang, Mohammad H. Mahoor, Christos Tsiokos, Charles Matlack, Howard Jay Chizeck, Nader Pouratian

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Current DBS therapy delivers a train of electrical pulses at set stimulation parameters. This open-loop design is effective for movement disorders, but therapy may be further optimized by a closed loop design. The technology to record biosignals has outpaced our understanding of their relationship to the clinical state of the whole person. Neuronal oscillations may represent or facilitate the cooperative functioning of brain ensembles, and may provide critical information to customize neuromodulation therapy. This review addresses advances to date, not of the technology per se, but of the strategies to apply neuronal signals to trigger or modulate stimulation systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-204
Number of pages18
JournalNeurosurgery clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Closed-loop
  • Control systems
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Local field potentials
  • Machine learning
  • Oscillations
  • Subthalamic nucleus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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