Craniofacial Growth and Asymmetry in Newborns: A Longitudinal 3D Assessment

Ai Lun Lo, Rami R. Hallac, Shih Heng Chen, Kai Hsiang Hsu, Sheng Wei Wang, Chih Hao Chen, Rei Yin Lien, Lun Jou Lo, Pang Yun Chou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the development of the craniofacial region in healthy infants and analyze the asymmetry pattern in the first year of life. Methods: The participants were grouped by sex and age (1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months) to receive three-dimensional (3D) photographs. Stereoscopic craniofacial photos were captured and transformed into a series of craniofacial meshes in each group. The growth patterns of the anthropometric indices and the degree of craniofacial asymmetry were measured, and average craniofacial meshes and color-asymmetry maps with craniofacial asymmetry scores were calculated. Results: A total of 373 photographs from 66 infants were obtained. In both genders, the highest and lowest growth rates for all anthropometric indices were noted between 1 and 2 months and between 9 and 12 months, respectively. Overall, male infants had higher anthropometric indices, head volume, and head circumference than female infants. The craniofacial asymmetry score was presented with a descending pattern from 1 to 12 months of age in both sex groups. Both sex groups showed decreased left-sided laterality in the temporal-parietal-occipital region between 1 and 4 months of age and increased right frontal-temporal prominence between 6 and 12 months of age. Conclusions: A longitudinal evaluation of the craniofacial growth of healthy infants during their first year of life was presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12133
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • 3D image
  • color-asymmetry maps
  • craniofacial growth
  • craniofacial morphology
  • growth chart
  • head volume
  • longitudinal assessment
  • newborns

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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