INTRODUCTION: Treatment options for refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in children include botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) and augmentation cystoplasty (AC). Although BTX-A is accepted in contemporary pediatric urologic practice, cost and long-term outcomes data for BTX-A are limited relative to the gold standard, AC. The purpose of this study was to compare the projected 10-year costs of AC versus BTX-A. METHODS: We performed a cost analysis from the payer perspective by computationally modeling treatment sequences by a Markov model. In the model, we used probabilities derived from published sources, and costs obtained at a tertiary medical center. The base case was a pediatric patient with refractory NDO. In the model, we assumed biannual BTX-A treatments. Treatment costs over 10 years were compared between immediate AC versus bridging therapy with BTX-A. Using the computational model, we simulated 100,000 instances of 10-year treatment cost for each of the two treatment modalities. The costs for the two treatment approaches were then compared using t-test and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The projected median and mean 10-year cost of immediately AC were $51,798.72 (95% CI [$51,798.72, $327,483.80]) and $123,473.4 (SD: $98,085.23) respectfully, while the projected median and mean 10-year cost of bridging therapy with BTX-A prior to proceeding to AC as needed were $74,552.46 (95% CI [$53,188.56, $309,913.07]) and $124,858.80 (SD: $84,495.35) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: For a typical index pediatric patient with NDO, bridging therapy with intravesical BTX-A is associated with an increased cost compared to immediate AC over a ten-year period.
- Augmentation cystoplasty
- Intravesical botulinum toxin type A
- Markov model
- Neurogenic detrusor overactivity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health