Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography, part 1: vesicoureteral reflux evaluation

Aikaterini Ntoulia, Elisa Aguirre Pascual, Susan J. Back, Richard D. Bellah, Viviana P. Beltrán Salazar, Pui Kwan Joyce Chan, Jeanne S. Chow, David Coca Robinot, Kassa Darge, Carmina Duran, Monica Epelman, Damjana Ključevšek, Jeannie K. Kwon, Preet Kiran Sandhu, Magdalena M. Woźniak, Frederica Papadopoulou

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS) is a well-established, sensitive and safe ultrasound (US) modality for detecting and grading vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and urethral imaging in children. Nearly three decades of remarkable advances in US technology and US contrast agents have refined ceVUS’s diagnostic potential. The recent approval of Lumason/SonoVue in the United States, Europe and China for pediatric intravesical applications marked the beginning of a new era for this type of contrast US imaging. Consequently, the use of ceVUS in children has expanded to multiple places around the globe. In the first part of this review article, we describe the current experience in the use of ceVUS for VUR evaluation, with an emphasis on historical background, examination technique, image interpretation and diagnostic accuracy. In the second part, we will present the role of ceVUS for urethral imaging in children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2351-2367
Number of pages17
JournalPediatric radiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Children
  • Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography
  • Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound contrast agents
  • Vesicoureteral reflux
  • Vesicoureteral reflux detection
  • Vesicoureteral reflux grading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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