Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of carotid atherosclerotic disease: A review

S. Tellapuri, P. D. Sutphin, S. P. Kalva, R. F. Mattrey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Contrast-enhanced sonography is a safe, radiation-free, and minimally invasive imaging technique. It takes advantage of the nonlinear behavior of microbubble contrast agents to produce microbubble-only images, which allows for the assessment of the extracranial carotid arteries, with a minuscule total dose of <1 mL. This review highlights the current status of extracranial carotid sonography imaging, including plaque characterization when using standard and contrast-enhanced sonography. Learning Objective: Describe risk factors associated with ischemic stroke and the associated imaging features and how contrast-enhanced sonography can provide direct evaluation for carotid artery stenosis as well as characterization of atherosclerotic plaque.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-48
Number of pages11
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021


  • CEUS = contrast-enhanced ultrasound
  • DVR = diastolic velocity ratio
  • ECST = European carotid surgery trial
  • IMT = intima-media thickness
  • MB = microbubble
  • NASCET = North american symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial
  • SVR = systolic velocity ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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