Conditional rescue of olfactory learning and memory defects in mutants of the 14-3-3ζ gene leonardo

Nisha Philip, Summer F. Acevedo, Efthimios M C Skoulakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Members of the ubiquitous 14-3-3 family of proteins are abundantly expressed in metazoan neurons. The Drosophila 14-3-3ζ gene leonardo is preferentially expressed in adult mushroom bodies, centers of insect learning and memory. Mutants exhibit defects in olfactory learning and memory and physiological neuroplasticity at the neuromuscular junction. Because strong mutations in this gene are lethal, we investigated the nature of the defects that precipitate the learning and memory deficit and the role of the two protein isoforms encoded by leonardo in these processes. We find that the behavioral deficit in the mutants is not caused by aberrant development, LEONARDO protein is acutely required for learning and memory, and both protein isoforms can function equivalently in embryonic development and behavioral neuroplasticity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8417-8425
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 1 2001


  • 14-3-3ζ
  • Behavioral neuroplasticity
  • Conditional rescue
  • Inducible transgenes
  • Learning and memory
  • Leonardo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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