Commencing insulin glargine 100 U/mL therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Determinants of achievement of HbA1c goal less than 7.0%

David R. Owens, Wolfgang Landgraf, Brian M. Frier, Mei Zhang, Philip D. Home, Luigi Meneghini, Geremia B. Bolli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Aims: To identify factors associated with achievement of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) target at 24 weeks after commencing basal insulin therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and methods: Post-hoc pooled analysis of 16 randomized, treat-to-target trials involving individuals with T2DM inadequately controlled with oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs (n = 3415) initiated on once-daily insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100). Clinical outcomes were assessed by HbA1c response at 24 weeks and individuals were classified as “good responders” with HbA1c <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) or as “poor responders” with HbA1c ≥7.0% (≥53 mmol/mol). Univariable and multivariable stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for attaining HbA1c <7.0%. Results: Lower levels of baseline HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), higher body mass index (BMI), shorter diabetes duration and male sex were associated with a good glycaemic response, but not age or baseline C-peptide levels. Gla-100 dose (U/kg) was highest in the poor-responder group, which had the fewest hypoglycaemia episodes. Univariable analysis for achievement of HbA1c <7.0% confirmed these observations. Multivariable analysis retained baseline HbA1c, body weight, BMI, sex, 2-hours PPG and diabetes duration as predictors of a good response. Continued use of sulfonylureas, hypoglycaemia and change in body weight were indicative of poor response. Conclusions: Baseline HbA1c was the strongest determinant for achieving target HbA1c <7.0% by supplementary Gla-100 therapy, while sex and BMI were also useful indicators. However, age and C-peptide levels at baseline did not predict glycaemic response to the introduction of basal insulin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-329
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2019


  • basal insulin
  • glycaemic control
  • hypoglycaemia
  • meta-analysis
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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