Clubfoot Does Not Impair Gross Motor Development in 5-Year-Olds

Karina A. Zapata, Lori A. Karol, Kelly A. Jeans, Chan Hee Jo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: To evaluate the gross motor development of 5-year-olds using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd Edition (PDMS-2), test after initial nonoperative management of clubfoot as infants. Methods: The PDMS-2 Stationary, Locomotion, and Object Manipulation subtests were assessed on 128 children with idiopathic clubfeet at the age of 5 years. Children were categorized by their initial clubfoot severity as greater than 13, unilateral or bilateral involvement, and required surgery. Results: Children with treated clubfeet had average gross motor scores (99 Gross Motor Quotient) compared with age-matched normative scores. Children with more severe clubfeet required surgery significantly more than children with less severe scores (P <.01). Peabody scores were not significantly different according to initial clubfoot severity, unilateral versus bilateral involvement, and surgical versus nonsurgical outcomes. Conclusions: Clubfoot does not significantly impair gross motor development in 5-year-olds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-104
Number of pages4
JournalPediatric Physical Therapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018


  • idiopathic clubfeet
  • PDMS-2
  • Peabody

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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